For Goodness Snakes! Treating and Preventing Venomous Bites
Article from the US Food and Drug Administration.

  • For Goodness Snakes! Treating and Preventing Venomous Bites By John Henkel They fascinate

  • People who frequent these wilderness spots, as well as those who camp, hike, picnic, or live in snake-inhabited areas, should be aware of potential dangers posed by venomous snakes

  • A bite from one of these, in which the snake may inject varying degrees of toxic venom, should always be considered a medical emergency, says the American Red Cross

  • The article's authors estimate that between 7, 000 and 8, 000 people a year receive venomous bites in the United States, and about five of those people die

  • Some experts say that because people who are bitten can't always positively identify a snake, they should seek prompt care for any bite, though they may think the snake is nonpoisonous

  • Even a bite from a so-called 'harmless' snake can cause an infection or allergic reaction in some individuals

  • Medical professionals sometimes disagree about the best way to treat poisonous snakebites

  • Some physicians hold off on immediate treatment, opting for observation of the patient to gauge a bite's seriousness

    eMedicine Health - Snake Bite
    Overview of symptoms and treatment of snake bites.

  • August 27, 2006 > Snakebite 1 | Snakebite Snakebite Overview Snakes are remarkable animals, successful on land, in the sea, in forests, in grasslands, in lakes, and in deserts

  • How snakes bite: Snakes that inject venom use modified salivary glands

  • During envenomation (the bite that injects venom or poison), the venom passes from the venom gland through a duct into the snake's fangs, and finally into its prey

  • Who snakes bite: It has been estimated that 5 million snakebites occur worldwide each year, causing about 125, 000 deaths

  • Snakebites are more common in tropical regions and in areas that are primarily agricultural

  • Five to ten deaths occur per year from snakebite in the United States

  • People provoke bites by handling or even attacking snakes in a significant number of cases in the United States

  • Of the estimated 45, 000 snakebites per year in the United States, about 8000 are by venomous snakes

  • Which snakes bite: Two major families of snakes account for most venomous snakes dangerous to humans

    Rattlesnakes (DesertUSA)
    All about rattlesnakes. Includes information on the diet, habitat, life cycle,
    and behavior.

  • Rattlesnakes Genus Crotalus Throughout the world there are many snakes whose venomous bite can be fatal to humans

  • Very few people are actually bitten by rattlesnakes, yet because the bite is extremely painful and can be fatal, you should always keep alert and watch where you step or put your hands when you are in the field

    Life History Notes: Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake
    Sistrurus catenatus catenatus habitat and reproductive behavior in Ohio.

  • Native to Ohio: Yes Active or Potential Nuisance Species: Potential - Not because of overabundance, but because of potential harm/conflict to humans if the snake uses an inhabited area (e.g., a basement) The Eastern massasauga is a state

  • In 1976, a Division of Wildlife regulation was passed which, in effect, prohibited the taking or killing of all reptiles and amphibians, except turtles and frogs, on Division of Wildlife controlled lands

  • Snakes do not seek out people to bite; striking and biting is a defensive measure on the part of the snake

  • The risk of snake bite is highly overrated; annually, more people die from bee stings or lightning strikes than from snake bites


    Photo by www.calpoison.org

    Life History Notes: Copperhead Snake
    Agkistrodon contortrix mokeson reproductive behavior and ecology in the wild.

  • The bite of a copperhead, while painful and capable of producing severe illness, rarely results in death

  • Further, the Division advises individuals that frequent the copperhead's natural habitat to exercise caution as the venom from this snake's bite will make you extremely ill, and left untreated carries the potential for death

    Rattlesnake Racing Texas Adventure Racing
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    Rattlesnake ! Bayou Bob's Brazos River Rattlesnake Ranch
    Includes brief information about various dangerous snakes.

  • Join Bob in easy informal discussions about snake specie identification, behavioral traits, critical bite first aid, do's and don'ts in the field, dispelling myths and folklore, and a wide range of other topics

    Introduction and guide from the City of Phoenix, Arizona on snake, insect, gila
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  • BITES AND STINGS About 45, 000 people are bitten by snakes every year in the United States

  • More than half of the poisonous snakebites involve children, and most occur between April and October

  • Of the poisonous bites in the United States, 55 percent are from rattlesnakes, 34 percent from copperheads, 10 percent from water moccasins, and onepercent from coral snakes

  • Rattlesnake bites account for 70 percent of the fatalities and between 95 and 98 percent of the bites occur on extremities

  • Each year the Samaritan Regional Poison Center has more than 65 calls about rattlesnake bites

  • Baby rattlesnakes are capable of a venomous bite from birth

  • Nonpoisonous snakebites are not considered serious and are generally treated as minor wounds; only poisonous snakebites are considered medical emergencies

  • Symptoms generally occur immediately, but only about one third of all bites manifest symptoms

  • In 50 percent of coral snake bites, no venom is injected because the coral snake has to chew the skin for envenomation to occur

  • In as many as 25 percent of all venomous pit viper bites, no venom is injected, possibly because the fangs may be injured, the venom sacs may be empty at the time of the bite, or the snake may not use the fangs when it strikes

  • Benefits

    Photo by nashdalleh.smugmug.com

    The Rattlesnakes of Arizona by James Q. Jacobs
    An analysis of the domain of rattlesnakes of Arizona as expressed by an expert.
    This model linguistics project is an ethnographic interview, not a zoological ...

  • Sisturus milarius The information conveyed by the informant emphasized these two spheres of information and also included cause-effect of rattlesnake bites, rationale of rattlesnakes biting humans, functions of rattlesnake sensory apparatus, spatial models of rattlesnake territories, ranges and habitats, and a sequence model for behavior if you hear a rattle or are bitten

  • If bitten 'the best advice is to be as immobile, as still, as you possibly can.' 'You do need to get to a hospital within two hours, that is the number one axiom today.' A 'loose, constricting band between the bite and the heart is very recommended.' 'Anti-venin is a must

  • 'Many of those in that category are involved in alcohol consumption.' 'The average person (that gets bit) is not from Arizona.' 'A lot of people who are bit are, unfortunately, from out of town.' 'Bites have increased to 400 a year reported bites as a result of habitat destruction, interaction with these animals through construction/development sites....' This is a significant increase due to 'more people that are moving into snake territory.' 'There is a death about every 24 months to 36 months on the average.' 'Everyone that is bitten, that actually is venomized, has long-lasting consequences, including loss of motor dexterity, loss of tissue.' Ninety percent of those bitten 'are doing something that they should not have been doing to the snake in the first place.' 'Many of the people who are bit ..

    Snake Bites
    Lists symptoms, treatments, and means of prevention for venomous snake bites.

  • Related Resources First Aid Snake Bites The danger of snake bites: Each year, nearly 8, 000 people receive poisonous snake bites in the United States

  • Even a bite from a so-called "harmless" snake can cause infection or allergic reaction in some people

  • People who frequent wilderness areas, camp, hike, picnic, or live in snake-inhabited areas should be aware of the potential dangers posed by venomous snakes

  • What snakes cause poisonous bites? Any of the following snakes cause poisonous bites: Rattlesnake Copperhead Cottonmouth Water Moccasin Coral Snake What are the symptoms of poisonous bites? While each individual may experience symptoms differently, the following are the most common symptoms of poisonous snake bites: bloody wound discharge fang marks in the skin and swelling at the site of the bite severe localized pain diarrhea burning convulsions fainting dizziness weakness blurred vision excessive sweating fever increased thirst loss of muscle coordination nausea and vomiting numbness and tingling rapid pulse How are snake bites treated? Call for emergency assistance immediately if someone has been bitten by a snake

    Red Rock Biologics
    Offers vaccines to protect dogs from rattlesnake venom. Introduces risks and
    contacts in Woodland, California.

  • Rattlesnake bite is a veterinary emergency that results in serious injury or even death to thousands of dogs each year

  • Rattlesnake venom is a complex mixture of toxins that spreads through a dog's body following the bite

    FAQ: Venomous Critters
    A summary on poisonous snakes, spiders, lizards, and scorpions, with recommended
    treatments. From Texin's Outdoor Club.

  • Bites from any of the, even the most potent rattlesnakes, rarely result in death

  • Don't use a snakebite kit

  • In fact, there is no good first aid for rattlesnake bite

  • If you must do something, she said, 'elevate and immobilize the limb, rest quietly, and don't freak out.' Most of the popular literature on snakebite is out of date, and some hospital emergency-room physicians may still attempt to use ice

  • Almost all cases of amputation after snakebite are actually the result of using ice, a tourniquet or both

  • If you're not in an area where snakebite is common, insist that the doctors call the Regional Poison Control Center (listed on the inside cover of the phone book)

  • Still, that is usually preferable to the effects of untreated snakebite

  • Boyer said, 'It's a lousy, stinking product that causes a lot of problems, but there's nothing else around.' The cure for snakebite is to avoid it

  • A rattlesnake can bite up to an hour after decapitation

  • A 'spasm' from a dead snake will reflexively deliver the full load of venom and can be worse than a live snakebite


    eMedicine - Snake Envenomations, Cobra : Article by Robert Norris, MD
    In depth information on snake envenomations of the Cobra. History, statistics,
    pre-hospital and hospital emergency treatments.

  • Most snakebites are inflicted on body extremities

  • Because cobras are popular as show snakes, bites on the hands and fingers are common

  • By far, rural agricultural workers and other people in Asia and Africa receive most bites while working outdoors without protective footwear

  • In North America and Europe, captive snakes usually cause bites, zookeepers and amateur collectors being at greatest risk

  • Not all snakebites result in envenomation

  • In the case of cobras, the percentage of blank bites may be quite high, 45% in one series of 47 cases from Malaysia

  • Necrosis is typical of bites by the African spitting cobras ( Naja nigricollis , Naja mossambica , Naja pallida , and Naja katiensis ), Naja atra (the Chinese cobra), Naja kaouthia (monocellate cobra), and Naja sumatrana (Sumatran spitting cobra)

  • In a series of 54 consultations regarding bites by nonnative snakes in the United States, 23 involved cobras

  • In Russell's 1980 series, cobras inflicted 18 of the 85 bites by non-native snakes

  • No comparable data are available for other nations, though it was reported that only 3 cobra bites among 32 bites inflicted by nonnative venomous snakes occurred in Britain (rattlesnakes were implicated most often in this series)

    Florida Venomous Snakes 1
    A fieldguide to the venomous snakes of Florida.

  • Among snakebite victims, an unacceptably high number are bitten on the hands and arms when they are handling the snake

  • Those reflexes typically cause the body to writhe slowly for awhile, but they can cause a convulsive contraction and a bite, so you should not handle a freshly killed venomous snake

  • The only acceptable treatment for venomous snakebite, involves the use of antivenin

  • Copperhead bites are extremely painful but usually are not life-threatening for healthy adults

  • As with all venomous snakebites, the victim should seek immediate medical care from a physician or hospital experienced in treating snakebite

  • When threatened, the Cottonmouth may respond by coiling its body and opening its mouth as though ready to bite

  • Cottonmouth bites can be quite dangerous

  • The victim should seek immediate medical care from a physician or hospital experienced in treating snakebite

  • Its bite, while usually not life threatening, is extremely painful and can result in the loss of a digit

  • Both the Scarlet Kingsnake and the Scarlet Snake are beneficial and should not be harmed If you have difficulty separating the harmless mimics from the Coral Snake, the following mnemonic rhymes will identify the Coral Snake for you: ‘If red touches yellow, it can kill a fellow, ’ and ‘If its nose is black, it’s bad for jack.’ Because the Coral Snake is a relative of the cobras, people believe its bite nearly always is fatal

    Venomous Snake Chart
    Compares the amount of venom in a lethal dose to the average venom yield per bite
    of North American venomous snakes.

    VenomousReptiles.org Home - The SHHS is Venomous Snake Headquarters
    Group of venomous reptile keepers educating the public about venomous snakes and

    Snake Bites
    An overview of bites from different snake species. Includes treatment options.
    By Survive Outdoors.

  • Snake Bites Introduction Since Adam and Eve, snakes have long been portrayed as evil creatures to be feared

  • Snake Bite Facts In the United States, only about 12 people a year die from snakebites

  • The estimated chances of dying from a snakebite in the outdoors is approximately 1:10 million

  • Victims of snakebites in North America usually have two common denominators, tattoos and alcohol intake

  • Therefore, snakebites can present as one puncture wound, two, three or even four (see photo of timber rattlesnake for example of multiple fangs)

  • There is also a histamine release by the body after the bite

  • Coral Snake Bite Symptoms Coral snake venom is different than pit viper venom

  • Dry Bites Dry bites are referred to as “misses, ” no venom injected due to the lack of venom, a glancing blow, or penetration could not occur because of the clothing worn by the individual

  • Dry bites account for about 20-30% of all snakebites

  • Pit Viper Bite Symptoms There are many symptoms associated with the bite of a pit viper

  • Snakebite Treatment for Pit Vipers General support/reassurance; keep the victim calm; move the individual away from the snake, if possible; do not try to kill the snake—two people being bitten is worse and you cannot aid the first victim (note: amputated snake heads can still bite as a reflex)

    Wildlife Viewing - Species Spotlight - Florida's Venomous Snakes
    Photographs and a brief description of six species.

  • Its bite produces pain and swelling which usually subsides in a few days

  • While its bite could be fatal to humans under certain circumstances, no deaths from the bite of this species have been recorded

  • So uncommon is this species here that very few bites, and no resulting deaths, have been reported from Florida

  • It does not have to be coiled to strike, but can deliver a bite form almost any position, either in or out of the water

  • The poisonous bite of this reptile results in great pain and severe swelling

  • With immediate and proper medical treatment, the bite is only occasionally fatal to humans

  • It does not strike like the pit vipers but bites and chews to inject its poison

  • Especially vulnerable parts of the human anatomy to coral snake bites are fingers and toes

  • Most bites occur when a "pretty little snake" is picked up by someone who does not recognize it as a venomous one

    Bugs In The news
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    From the Pelotes Island Nature Preserve.

  • If you get bitten by a snake, wash the bite well; remember what the snake looks like; and get a grown-up to take you to the doctor

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