Fleas, HYG-2081-97
Ohio State University Extension fact sheet about fleas, including a species list
and information about life cycle and control.

  • Adult fleas are not only a nuisance to humans and their pets, but can cause medical problems including flea allergy dermatitis (FAD), tapeworms, secondary skin irritations and, in extreme cases, anemia

  • Also, fleas may transmit bubonic plague from rodent to rodent and from rodent to humans

  • Oriental rat fleas can transmit murine typhus (endemic typhus) fever among rats and from rats to humans

  • (An equivalent hop for a human would be 250 feet vertically and 450 feet horizontally.) They have piercing-sucking mouthparts and spines on the body projecting backward

  • Normally after a blood meal, the female flea lays about 15 to 20 eggs per day up to 600 in a lifetime usually on the host (dogs, cats, rats, rabbits, mice, squirrels, chipmunks, raccoons, opossums, foxes, chickens, humans, etc.)

  • IGRs are of negligible hazard to humans, pets, and the environment

  • Lufenuron is very safe to humans, pets and the environment

    Chiggers, HYG-2100-98
    Illustrated fact sheet from Ohio State University.

  • Chiggers feed on a wide variety of snakes, turtles, birds, and small mammals as well as humans

  • Eggs hatch into six-legged larvae, the only stage that attacks humans and animals (parasitic stage)

  • Do not use indiscriminately as severe human allergies can develop

  • Treat the grass, shrubs, and trees in lawns, parks, campgrounds and golf courses, if needed, keeping humans and pets off treated areas until dry

    Fighting Fleas and Ticks
    Article from the US Food and Drug Administration about treating fleas and ticks.

  • Happy to feed on anyone in the household--cat, dog or human--these wingless insects will most likely choose a pet, whose fur provides warm camouflage for their breeding ground

  • The effort, coordinated by EPA policy analyst Janet Whitehurst, began early in 1994, when she learned that in just 18 months, EPA had received 853 reports of adverse effects, including 148 animal deaths and 58 reports of illness in humans

  • Human Problems Fleas and ticks transmit diseases to people as well as pets

  • Lyme disease is by far the most often reported tick-borne disease in humans in the United States: 13, 083 cases in 1994, up from 8, 257 in 1993

  • CDC received reports of 415 cases of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, a disease also transmitted by ticks, since it was identified in 1986

  • In 1994, scientists identified another similar disease, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, or HGE

  • The lone star tick transmits human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis

  • Early diagnosis and treatment give humans the best chance of recovery from these and other flea- or tick-transmitted diseases

    Black Death the Bubonic Plague
    A student report describing the disease, causes, history, symptoms, and modern
    day treatment of the Black Death. Includes web links.


    Photo by delusion.ucdavis.edu

    MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Plague
    Factsheet with causes, risk factors, symptoms, treatment, diagnosis, complications,
    and prevention.

  • Wild rodents, like rats, spread the disease to humans

  • Humans may get the plague when they touch or eat the infected animal, or when they come in contact with it's feces.  Certain forms of the plague can be spread from human to human

    MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Insect bites and stings
    Prevention, symptoms, images, and treatment.

    InteliHealth: Plague
    Factsheet with symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and prognosis.

  • Less commonly, humans become infected in other ways: when the organism enters through a break in the skin after direct contact with the tissue or blood of an infected animal (for example, if a hunter is skinning an animal); or by direct inhalation of infected droplets if they are in close contact with a person or animal infected with the pneumonic form of the illness (plague infection of the lungs)

  • Pneumonic plague � This form of plague develops when a victim has inhaled contaminated airborne droplets from an animal or human whose plague infection has spread to the lungs, or from spread of the bacteria to the lungs in patients with bubonic or septicemic plague

    eMedicine - Plague : Article by Venkat R Minnaganti, MD
    Article by Venkat R Minnaganti, MD.

  • Plague is worldwide in distribution, with most of the human cases reported from developing countries

  • This disease is an acute, contagious, febrile illness transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected rat flea

  • Human-to-human transmission is rare except during epidemics of pneumonic plague

  • Ticks and human lice have been identified as possible vectors

  • Humans are accidental hosts in the natural cycle of this disease

  • Histopathology of lung in fatal human plague–fibrinopurulent pneumonia

  • Histopathology of spleen in fatal human plague

  • Histopathology of liver in fatal human plague

  • Focal hemorrhages in islet of Langerhans in fatal human plague

  • Can Dis Wkly Rep: Human plague in 1990

  • Benefits

    Photo by online-pets-supply.com

    Plague: Yersinia pestis
    Scientific and medical information about the organism and disease.

  • OVERVIEW Plague or black death is an infection of rodents caused by Yersinia pestis and accidentially transmitted to humans by the bite of infected fleas

  • Human to human transmission: By droplets (pneumonic) or by

  • TYPES OF PLAGUE Bubonic Pneumonic Click on image to get an enlarged view PATHOGENESIS Yersinia pestis is primarily a rodent pathogen, with humans being an accidental host when bitten by an infected rat flea

  • Most of the organisms are phagocytosed and killed by the polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the human host

    ENT-58: Invisible Itches: Insect and Non-Insect Causes
    Article about biting arthropods and other causes of irritations of unknown origin.

    Zoonotic Diseases
    Discusses several zoonoses carried by wild animals.

  • - Zoonoses) from The Humane Control of Wildlife in Cities & Towns by the Humane Society of the United States Zoonotic diseases are those diseases shared by animals and humans

  • Wildlife serves as a reservoir for many diseases common to domestic animals and humans

  • Many zoonotic diseases are so common in nature, so rare in humans, or so mild in their symptoms, that wild animals pose a minimal health risk to people

    Medmicro Chapter 38
    Scientific and medical information on the organisms and the diseases they cause.

  • Classification and Antigenic Types Ehrlichia sennetsu, E chaffeensis, and the human granulocytic ehrlichia are genetically distinct and are easily distinguished antigenically

  • Pathogenesis A reservoir of E chaffeensis is deer, and for both human monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichiosis are transmitted when ticks bite human skin and inoculate organisms, which then spread by the bloodstream

  • Human infections with E chaffeensis - and E phagocytophila -like organisms have been found recently

  • Human monocytic ehrlichiosis originates in most of the Atlantic, southeastern, and south central states from New Jersey to Texas

  • Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis has been identified in the upper midwest and New England thus far

  • Pathogenesis Coxiella burnetii organisms are transmitted to the human lungs by aerosol from heavily infected placentas of sheep and other mammals and disseminate in the bloodstream to the liver and bone marrow, where they are phagocytosed by macrophages

  • It can be cultured outside of eukaryotic cells and is transmitted to humans via lice

  • Rickettsioses are zoonoses that, except for Q fever, are usually transmitted to humans by arthropods (tick, mite, flea, louse, or chigger) (Table 38-2)


    Insect Borne Diseases - The Travel Doctor
    Factsheets on many insect-borne illnesses.

  • Filarial worms can live up to twenty years in humans producing larvae that infect insects but the worms do not multiply in the body

  • Lyme Disease An infectious disease caused by a bacterium which is spread to humans by tick bites

  • Leishmaniasis Is caused by single celled organisms called leishmania which are passed on to humans by the bite of the sand fly (phlebotomus)

  • Tsetse flies breed alongside rivers and transmit the disease between wild animals, cattle and humans

  • The disease is present in most rural areas particularly where there is a human presence

  • All forms of typhus fever are caused by tiny organisms called rickettsiae which are passed on to humans by various types of insects including lice (epidemic), fleas (endemic), mites (scrub) and ticks

  • The infection is spread to humans by the bite of the rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis)

  • They can then transmit the disease to humans who become their hosts

    Plague Facts
    Includes cause, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

  • Plague Plague is a bacterial disease of rodents that can be spread to humans and other animals by infected fleas

  • What is plague? Plague is a disease of rodents that can be spread to humans another animals by infected fleas

  • The risk of infection to humans and other animals in the area increases when the rodent hosts die and infected fleas look for other sources oxblood

  • In the United States, most cases in humans occur in two regions: 1) northern New Mexico, northern Arizona, and southern Colorado, and 2) California, southern Oregon, and far western Nevada

  • Many other types of rodents -- including other ground squirrels, prairie dogs, chipmunks, wood rats, wild mice, and voles -- suffer plague outbreaks and are occasional sources of human infection

  • Dogs rarely suffer severe illness and have yet to be shown to be sources of infection for humans

  • How common is plague? In the United States, human plague cases average about 10 to 15per year

  • Epidemics of plague in humans usually involve house rats and their fleas

  • Since then, all human plague cases in the United States have been associated with plague outbreaks in wild rodents and their fleas

    Association for Postal Commerce
    Everything new in the international post offices and small package shipping.

    Primate Info Net: Zoonoses Acquired From Pet Primates
    Discusses several monkey and ape borne zoonotic diseases.

  • With author's permission.] Nonhuman primates are susceptible to many biological agents that infect human beings but are not infectious to lower animals

  • The value of this susceptibility in biomedical research is well known; however, the infected nonhuman primate is a potential hazard to the research personnel in contact with it

  • This article reviews the most important infectious diseases that are found in the pet nonhuman primate and present potential hazards to human beings

  • Herpes simiae (herpes B) produces a mild disease in some species of monkeys that is analogous to the cold sores caused in humans by the virus Herpes hominis (simplex), to which B virus is immunologically related

  • Most human infections have resulted from laboratory accidents and monkey bites; however, one case was thought to have been caused by droplet spread

  • Two other herpesviruses, Herpesvirus saimiri and Herpesvirus ateles, which are found in the squirrel and spider monkey, respectively, are oncogenic in other nonhuman primates, causing neoplasms of lymphoretic- ular origin upon injection

  • ateles are not considered zoonotic hazards to human beings

    Insects: Proverbs, quotes, sayings, etc.
    A collection of citations, proverbs, and expressions about insects and spiders.

  • Italian - Gnat Human knowledge will be erased from the world's archives before we possess the last word that a gnat has to say to us

  • China - Maggot Like a moth in clothing, or a maggot in wood, sorrow gnaws at the human heart

    Postgraduate Medicine: Zoonotic infections from pets
    Discusses several pet borne diseases by species of animal.

    Thomas W. McGovern, MAJ, MC, George W. Christopher, LTC, USAF, MC (warning:
    contains graphic images of the effects of biochem exposure.)

  • Smallpox decimated the Indians, but it is unclear if the contaminated blankets or endemic disease brought by the Europeans caused these epidemics.[92] In 1932, the Japanese began a series of horrific experiments on human beings at ‘Unit 731’ outside Harbin, Manchuria, China.[92] At least 11 Chinese cities were attacked with the agents of anthrax, cholera, shigellosis, salmonella, and plague, and at least 10, 000 died during their gruesome experiments.[27] The United States started an offensive biological warfare program at Camp Detrick (today Fort Detrick) in Frederick, Maryland in 1943.[27] Ten years later, the defensive program began

  • Weapons are easy and cheap to produce and can be used to selectively target humans, animals, or plants

  • BW agents are typically invisible in aerosol clouds and may not be detected until humans become ill

  • Although in vitro testing has demonstrated the effectiveness of quinolones, rifampin, third-generation cephalosporins, and amoxicillin, these have not been used to any great degree in human cases.[5] The U.S

    The Lilley Pad Candles, Soaps and Lotions
    Hand crafted soaps available in several recipes, and lotions, sachets and essential

  • I very happily worked with the Mayor, Town Manager, Finance Officer and Human Resources Administration Officer

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